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Title: Heart rate and reinforcement sensitivity in ADHD
Author(s): M. Luman, J. Oosterlaan, C. Hyde, C.S. Van Meel and J.A. Sergeant
Journal: J.Child Psychol.Psychiatry
Year: 2007
Volume: 48
Issue: 9
Pages: 890--898
Publisher address: Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands
File URL: vuams-pubs/Luman_2007.pdf
Keywords: Aged, Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, Child, CHILDREN, Cross-Over Studies, DISORDER, Feedback, Female, Heart, Heart Rate, heart rate variability, HEART-RATE, HEART-RATE-VARIABILITY, Humans, Male, methods, Netherlands, physiology, physiopathology, Psychomotor Performance, RATE-VARIABILITY, Reinforcement (Psychology), Reward, Time, Time Factors, VARIABILITIES, VARIABILITY
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Both theoretical and clinical accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) implicate a dysfunctional reinforcement system. This study investigated heart rate parameters in response to feedback associated with reward and response cost in ADHD children and controls aged 8 to 12. METHODS: Heart rate responses (HRRs) following feedback and heart rate variability (HRV) in the low frequency band (.04-.08 Hz), a measure of mental effort, were calculated during a time production paradigm. Performance was coupled to monetary gain, loss or feedback-only in a cross-over design. RESULTS: Children with ADHD exhibited smaller HRRs to feedback compared to controls. HRV of children with ADHD decreased when performance was coupled to reward or response cost compared to feedback-only. HRV of controls was similar across conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Children with ADHD were characterised by (a) possible abnormalities in feedback monitoring and (b) motivational deficits, when no external reinforcement is present

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